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Banbury is a market town and civil parish on the River Cherwell in the Cherwell District of Oxfordshire. It is 64 miles northwest of London, 38 miles southeast of Birmingham, 27 miles south of Coventry and 21 miles north northwest of the county town of Oxford. The urban area, including surrounding parishes, had a population of 43,867 at the 2001 census, though this figure has increased in recent years to approximately 45,000. The Member of Parliament for Banbury is Tony Baldry.
|OS Settlement Classification||Town|
|Police Authority||Thames Valley|
|Fire and Rescue Authority||Oxfordshire|
|Fire and Rescue Authority||Oxfordshire|
|Ambulance Authority||South Central|
Other names by which Banbury, Oxfordshire has been known in the past
Bambury ~ Banbery ~ Banburie ~ Banesbyrig ~ Banesberie
Banbury, Oxfordshire in John Bartholomew's "Gazetteer of the British Isles" (1887)
Banbury, mun. bor. and par. with ry. sta., Oxfordshire, on river Cherwell, 21 miles N. of Oxford and 78 miles NW. of London by rail -- par., 3408 ac., pop. 9660; local government dist., 4682 ac., pop. 12,072; mun. bor., 81 ac., pop. 3600; 5 Banks, 3 newspapers. Market-day, Thursday. It has foundries and breweries; also mfrs. of cheese and the familiar Banbury cakes. The battle of Banbury was fought (1469) on the neighbouring plain of Danesmoor. The bor. returned 1 member to Parliament until 1885.
Banbury, Oxfordshire in "A Topographical Dictionary of England" edited by Samuel Lewis (1848)
BANBURY (St. Mary), a borough, market-town, and parish, and the head of a union, chiefly in the hundred of Banbury, county of Oxford, but partly in that of King's-Sutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 22 miles (N.) from Oxford, and 69 (N. W.) from London; containing, with the township of Neithrop and the hamlets of Grimsbury and Nethercote, 7366 inhabitants. This place, called by the Saxons Banesbyrig, is supposed to have been occupied by the Romans, which opinion is corroborated by the discovery of Roman coins and an altar, the latter relic having been preserved under an archway in front of an inn, until about the year 1775: there is also, in a field near the south entrance to the town, a sort of amphitheatre, now called "the Bear Garden," presenting two rows of seats cut in the side of a hill, and of very ancient date. About the year 1135, a castle was built here by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, who, when taken prisoner by King Stephen, was compelled to resign this, with Newark and other fortresses which he had erected. It was afterwards restored to the see, and long continued to be one of the residences of the bishops, but in the first of Edward VI. was resigned to the crown: it is described by Leland, in the reign of Henry VIII., as "a castle having two wards, and each ward a ditch; in the outer is a terrible prison for convict men; in the north part of the inner ward is a fair piece of new building of stone." During the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, the neighbourhood was the scene of a sanguinary conflict, in 1469. between a vast body of insurgents from the north (said to have been privately encouraged by the Earl of Warwick) and the army of Edward IV., commanded by the Earl of Pembroke, who had been joined by Lord Stafford with about 5000 men. The armies met on a plain called Danesmoor, near Edgcot, five miles from Banbury; and a conflict ensued, somewhat advantageous to the insurgents. In the evening, the king's forces having retired to Banbury, a quarrel took place between Pembroke and Stafford respecting quarters at the inn; in consequence of which, Lord Stafford quitted the town with his followers, and left Pembroke alone to meet the enemy (who had encamped on a hill near the town) on the following day. In the battle which ensued the royal army was defeated, with the loss of 4000 men; and the gallant Pembroke and his brother, Sir Richard Herbert, being taken prisoners, were on the next day beheaded at this place, together with ten other gentlemen of the king's party.
Seal and Arms.
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